必修3语法名词性从句课件(ppt优秀课件)

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1、 名词性从句精讲精练课件名词性从句精讲精练课件 名词性从句名词性从句 主语从句主语从句宾语从句宾语从句表语从句表语从句同位语从句同位语从句主语从句在句中做主语从句在句中做- 宾语从句在句中做宾语从句在句中做-表语从句在句中做表语从句在句中做- 同位语从句在句中同位语从句在句中- 主语宾语表语同位语1. That he will come is certain. 2. I know that he will come.3. The truth is that I have been there. 4. The fact that she was late surprised us.主语从句宾语从

2、句表语从句同位语从句为什么叫名词性从句?_整个从句相当于一个名词比较:The man looked around.That the boy failed again in the exam disappointed his mother.同样作主语,从句可以表示较复杂的含义同样作主语,从句可以表示较复杂的含义,一般是个动作或性质一般是个动作或性质I know him.I know that he is writing his composition in his room.2. 为什么要有名词性从句?那人那人看了看四周. (名词作主语名词作主语)那孩子考试又不及格那孩子考试又不及格令他母亲很失

3、望令他母亲很失望. (从句作主语从句作主语)我知道他在房间里写作文.从句的特征:是一个句子是一个句子,有一个引导词有一个引导词,引导词做从句的一个成分引导词做从句的一个成分 (that 除除外外)名词能做的成分,从句都能做 从句表达的意思比名词复杂得多 主语从句that whether who whom whose what which when where why how从 句引导词:1. That he knows Japanese is known to all. 他懂英语他懂英语,这一点大家都知道这一点大家都知道令我惊讶的是在这儿见到他令我惊讶的是在这儿见到他.3. When he w

4、ill come is unknown .4. Whether he is coming doesnt matter much. 他来不来没什么要紧的他来不来没什么要紧的.他什么时候来不清楚他什么时候来不清楚.他们是怎么登上山顶的仍是个秘密他们是怎么登上山顶的仍是个秘密.5. It remains a secret how they climbed up the mountain.主语从句的位置主语从句的位置 1.在句首在句首 2.主语较长时通常放在后面主语较长时通常放在后面,句首主语用句首主语用 It 主语太长了主语太长了!放到句尾放到句尾That无词义无词义,不可省略不可省略What “什

5、么”, “所.的”2. What surprised me was to see him here .When “什么时候”主语从句主语从句不用不用 if位于句首位于句首 It 作主语的常用句型有:1. It + be +形容词 + that 从句2. It + be +名称词组(duty/pity.) + that 从句3. It + be + 过去分词(said/thought.) + that 从句4. It +不及物动词(seem/happen.) + that 从句 It is a pity that we cant go swimming.It is said that he to

6、ld her everything.It happened that I was out that day.It is certain that he will do well in the exam.真可惜我们不能去游泳真可惜我们不能去游泳.碰巧那天我外出了碰巧那天我外出了.他考试肯定会考好他考试肯定会考好.据说他已告诉了她一切据说他已告诉了她一切.注意注意: It looked that he was right. ( ) 可以说可以说: It looks as if.happen只有 it 句型It is said只有 it 句型 用形式主语 it 的主语从句常见结构It is clea

7、r (necessary, important, possible,remarkable that 很清楚(必要, 重要,可能, 值得注意等)It is a fact (a good thing, good news) that 事实是 ( 好事是,好消息是)It is well-known ( reported, recorded, estimated,said, believed) that众所周知( 据报道,据记载,据说,据估计)It turns out ( seems, happens, appears) that 结果是 ( 似乎是, 碰巧是, 好象是) It has been fo

8、und (has been proved,can be seen,must be pointed out) that 已发现( 已证明,可以看出,需指出)用 it 句型翻译:据说今年高一学生要学新教材据说今年高一学生要学新教材.事实是他们靠自己完成了所有的任务事实是他们靠自己完成了所有的任务.碰巧他们已经参加过军训了碰巧他们已经参加过军训了.众所周知众所周知, 比尔比尔 盖茨是世界上最富有的人盖茨是世界上最富有的人.我们应该养成好的学习习惯这很重要我们应该养成好的学习习惯这很重要.It is said that the Senior Grade one students will learn

9、a new text this year.It is a fact that they finished all the work by themselves.It happened that they had had their military training.It is well-known that Bill Gates is the richest person in the world. It is important that we (should) form a good habit of studying.Note: It is important/necessary/na

10、tural/our duty/essential/strange that sb (should) do sth. 固定句型, should可以省略翻译: 真奇怪他今天竟然迟到了.It is strange that he should be late today.strange不省略should为好表语从句从 句 同主语从句 (11个), 外加as if /引导词: as though, 1. The truth is that he has never been to the countryside.2. The question is whether w can finish the e

11、xperiment by Friday.3. It looks as if it were going to rain. 实际情况是他从未去过农村实际情况是他从未去过农村. that 一般不省略一般不省略问题在于我们能否在明天下午之前完成这项实验问题在于我们能否在明天下午之前完成这项实验. 表语从句不用表语从句不用 if好象看上去要下雨似的好象看上去要下雨似的. (其实不会其实不会)as if /as though从句常表示不真实的情况She talks as if /as though she had been there before . 她说话的口气好象以前去过那儿似的她说话的口气好象以

12、前去过那儿似的. 又比如:4. This school is no longer what it was before.这所学校已不再是从前的那个样子了这所学校已不再是从前的那个样子了. what =the thing that 系动词后面系动词后面注意下列表语从句中where, how, why 的译法This is where Lu Xun once lived.That was how they won the match.This is why she got up so early this morning.这就是鲁迅曾经住过的地方. 他们就是这样赢得这场比赛的. 这就是她为什么今天

13、早上起得这么早的原因.我们就是这样克服困难的我们就是这样克服困难的.那就是他昨天缺席的原因那就是他昨天缺席的原因.这就是我们上星期碰头的地方这就是我们上星期碰头的地方.This is / That was how we overcame the difficulties.That is why he was absent yesterday.This is where we met last Sunday.This is 总是现在时总是现在时That is 表示性质表示性质 That was 指过去动作指过去动作固定句型: This is where This is why This is h

14、ow.这就是的地方这就是的原因这就是的方法宾语从句中的连接词宾语从句中的连接词that在以下三种情况下不在以下三种情况下不能省略:能省略:v(1)当)当that 从句与另一名词性从句并列作从句与另一名词性从句并列作宾语时,第二个宾语时,第二个that不能省;不能省;v(2)当)当that作介词宾语时,作介词宾语时,that不可省掉。不可省掉。v(3)用)用it做形式宾语的宾语从句做形式宾语的宾语从句vEveryone knew what happened and that she was worried. vThe reason lies in that she works harder th

15、an the others do. 宾语从句whether与与if的辨用的辨用v表“是否”时,在下列情况下用whether。va. 主语从句主语从句b. 表语从句表语从句c. 同位语从句同位语从句e. 介词后的宾语从句介词后的宾语从句f.后接动词不定式后接动词不定式 (whether to do sth.) g .whether or not 连在一起引导宾语从连在一起引导宾语从句时不用句时不用if1).whether和和if都可以引导宾语从句都可以引导宾语从句 a.当当whether后紧跟后紧跟or not时时,不用不用if. eg: I dont know whether or not I

16、 will stay.b.介词介词后面的宾语从句不能用后面的宾语从句不能用if. eg: I worry about whether I hurt her feeling.2.注意注意 whether和和if的使用区别的使用区别Practice timeif / whether1. I asked her _ she had a bike.3. Were worried about _ he is safe.4. I dont know _ he is well or not.5. I dont know _ or not he is well.8. I dont know _ to go.

17、if / whetherwhetherwhether /ifwhetherwhetherI doubt if / whether he will pass the exam. I dont doubt that we will win the match.Do you doubt that he did it on his own? doubt问题肯定句中用 if / whether否定句中用 that 疑定句中用 that I doubt _he is telling the truth. We never doubt _ the plan will be carried out .Does

18、 he doubt _ you are from Austria?Im doubtful _ he will agree to this. if / whether that that if / whether 宾语从句经常做介词的宾语The Swede stood still, except _ his lips moved slightly.She is not satisfied with _ she has achieved.Mary always thinks of _ she can do more for the class.He wrote a letter of thanks

19、 to _ helped him. (任何一个)5. It depends on if we have enough time. whether we have enough time.介词后面不用 if that what how whoever6. Are you sorry for which you have done? what you have done?介词后面不用 which 宾语从句经常作表语形容词的宾语Im afraid (that ) Ill be late. We were surprised that he lost the game.我恐怕要迟到了. that 可以

20、省略我们对他在比赛中的失败感到惊异.此类此类表语形容词表语形容词有有: afraid pleased happysatisfied anxious suresurprised certain gladaware用它们造句用它们造句that 从句只跟在 except,but, in ,besides, save五个介词后面We think that middle school students master one foreign language possible . (改用形式宾语 it )2. We have made that a foreign language is useful w

21、eapon in the struggle of life clear. (改用形式宾语 it )我认为学好英语是必要的.I consider that we should learn English well necessary.We consider her suitable for the job. 宾语宾补consider find think feel make 等动词常带宾语补足语,这时要用形式宾语 it ,宾语从句放到宾补之后We think it possible that middle school students master one foreign language.W

22、e have made it clear that a foreign language is useful weapon in the struggle of lifeI consider it necessary that we should learn English wellit不能漏从句后移correctionThe emperor was pleased by which the minister told him about it.Are you sorry for that you have annoyed him?I find that this should be kept

23、 secret for the time being necessary.Can you doubt if she will succeed?I worried about if my brother will return in time.She said that she has never told a lie.Will you tell me when he leaves for Paris?Our football team won the match last Sunday excited all of us.It looked that he was well prepared

24、for the unexpected challenge. That he said moved everyone present.whatit necessary that this should be kept secret for the time beingthat she will succeed ?whether my brother will return in time.had will leave for Paris?That our football team won the match last Sunday excited all of usWhatIt seemedw

25、hich不做介词宾语that不做介词宾语从句缺少引导词that不做句子成分没有It look that表达式同位语从句被修饰词有: fact, news, hope, opinion, order, question, problem, belief, truth, theory, decision, discovery, conclusion, promise, rumor, fear, thought, suggestion, plan, idea同位语从句说明它们的内容常见引导词: that , whether ( if ), how, wh- 疑问词The fact that deed

26、s are better than words is quite clear.The question how I did it is hard to answer.They had no idea where they should go to find some food.The question whether he comes or not is not important. ( if )A thought came to me that he might be in the library.事实胜于雄辨这一道理非常清楚.我怎么做的这一问题难回答.他们根本不知去哪儿找食物他是否是否来这

27、个问题不重要.我突然想到他可能在图书馆. 被别的词隔开that 无词义1.Two thirds of all girls in Britain are on a diet./ The fact worries their parents and teachers a lot.2.The Queen of England was on a three-day visit in China./ We heard the news last night._ The fact that two thirds of all girls are on a diet worries their parent

28、s and teachers a lot._We heard the news last night that the Queen of England was on a three-day visit in China.4.Time travel is possible./ There is no scientific proof for the idea.5.Chinese students should be given more free time./ The suggestion is welcomed by many people, especially kids in schoo

29、l.3.Teenagers should not spend too much time online./ Many British parents hold the view._Many British parents hold the view that teenagers shouldnt spend too much time online._There is no scientific proof for the idea that time travel is possible._The suggestion that Chinese students should be give

30、n more free time is welcomed by many people, especially kids in school.一、同位语从句与定语 从句的相似之处1、两种从句都可以译成定语、两种从句都可以译成定语 e.g. The news that our team has won the final match is encouraging. (同位语从句)我们队取得决赛胜利的我们队取得决赛胜利的消息令人鼓舞。消息令人鼓舞。The news that you told us is really encouraging.(定语从句)你告诉我们的你告诉我们的消息真的令人鼓舞。消

31、息真的令人鼓舞。2、两种从句都可以用、两种从句都可以用that引导引导e.g. The suggestion that students should learn something practical is worth considering. (同位语从句)(同位语从句)学生应该学些实用的东西的学生应该学些实用的东西的建议值得考虑。建议值得考虑。The suggestion that is worth considering is that the students should learn something practical.(定语从句)(定语从句)值得考虑的值得考虑的建议是学生应该

32、学建议是学生应该学些实用的东西。些实用的东西。二、同位语从句与定语二、同位语从句与定语 从句的从句的不同之处不同之处1 1、从句的作用不同:同位语从句用来进一步、从句的作用不同:同位语从句用来进一步 说明前面名词的内容;定语从句用来修饰、说明前面名词的内容;定语从句用来修饰、 限定前面的名词。限定前面的名词。 e.g. The news that our team has won the final match is encouraging. (从句说明(从句说明“消息消息”的内容:的内容:我们队我们队取得了决赛胜利。取得了决赛胜利。)The news that you told us is

33、really encouraging.(从句对(从句对“消息消息”加以限定:是加以限定:是你告诉我们的你告诉我们的,而非而非来自其他渠道。但消息是何内容却不得而知。)来自其他渠道。但消息是何内容却不得而知。)2 2、引导从句的关联词、引导从句的关联词that的功能不同:的功能不同:that引导同位语从句时是一个纯连词,引导同位语从句时是一个纯连词,不充当任何成分;而引导定语从句的不充当任何成分;而引导定语从句的that是关系代词,既指代先行词又须在是关系代词,既指代先行词又须在从句中充当成分。从句中充当成分。e.g.1) Dad made a promise that he would buy me CD player if I passed the English test. (that 不充不充当任何成分)当任何成分) 2) Dad made a promise that excite

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